Glossary and various terms in connection with batteries, © Celltech AB 2016-01-01
Here are some of the vocabulary and the concepts that are often used in conjunction with batteries and battery charging as well as some explanations. Subject to errors due to human error.
A lead charger or Li-ion charger that charges with three voltage steps (actually a current step and two voltage steps). The same charger can be used for both cyclical and stand-by operation. Charges the battery in a fast, yet gentle manner, can be left connected indefinitely for lead-acid batteries intended for standby operation.
Denotes capacity, "energy content" of a battery, printed as Ah. Most interesting in connection with rechargeable systems, shows (theoretically) how much power you can withdraw from a fully charged battery over a certain period of time. In conjunction with smaller batteries used most often mAh 1 Ah = 1000 mAh. Often Ah is used sloppily, which is also used as name for current in connection with, for example, small power packs / battery eliminators, chargers, etc, and this may indicate that the supplier does not which have full understanding of the concepts.
Another name for the negative electrode in an electrochemical system, not to be confused with anode voltage which is a positive voltage in most contexts. The concept PANK (Positive Negative Anode Cathode) from school days does not apply in the context of batteries. Just as above, a supplier / manufacturer that does not have full understanding of this might be avoided.
A communication bus which is often used between devices in more advanced battery and energy systems. CAN (Controller Area Network) began to be used in the automotive and later in industry, mainly for its resistance to interference and safety. Available in versions with different data rate, various international standards, CAN open, etc. Bosch began using CAN in the 80s owns most of the patents.
Could be a vehicle but in connection with batteries, we mean a full charge followed by a full discharge. The chargeable batteries have a limited maximum number of cycles before they are considered used up. For NiCd up to about 1000 or better, for NiMH 500-1000 and for lead and lithium-ion around 300-500 cycles. Variations and special batteries with other data exists.
One way to detect, control and cancel the rapid charging of NiCd and NiMH batteries. Also written as Δv charging, the Δ symbol is used, eg., in mathematical contexts to point out the change in the quantity or variety that comes after the symbol. In our case, it is the change of voltage that is interesting. A minus sign in front shows the change is negative (decreasing). Δt/ΔT also occurs in battery charging, here it is the relationship between time and temperature which is meaningful, one stops charging when a certain temperature increase per unit time is reached.
Another word for closeness, which is a measure of for example, the charge state of the electrolyte in a lead acid battery. The density (here acid density) of a fully charged lead-acid battery is at 1.28 g / cm3, while a depleted has around 1.10. Measured with an hydrometer or density tester. Density (energy density) is also used as a term to show how "effective" a battery system is. One can distinguish between volumetric and gravimetric density, that is to say, the amount of energy per volume or weight of a battery or a cell.
A process that occurs at the end of the charge in lead-acid batteries where in oxygen and hydrogen are released and flow out of the battery. Hydrogen gas is highly flammable, and with the "right" mix of air / oxygen forms explosive oxy-hydrogen gas, therefore it is important with ventilation when opening lead acid batteries. When exhausted lead acid batteries are recycled the gases are "recombined" and form water. Also other cell types can form excess pressure and are therefore often provided with a safety valve. Most batteries and battery chemistries may release a small amount of oxygen and hydrogen.
High drain refers to the discharge current. A cell type that is specifically designed for applications with high currents, such as machine tools and RC cars. A standard cell has higher internal resistance, hence its voltage drops more under load, while a high-drain cell has very low internal resistance.
All power sources and batteries have an internal resistance measured in Ohm or mOhm, usually quite low, for example, 100 mOhm or less. It is internal resistance that determines the maximum current that may be taken out of a battery, for example when there's a short circuit. Even in "normal" operation the resistance value is in effect and determines how much the voltage in the battery will drop when it is loaded. Internal resistance increases afterwards as the battery is depleted or discharged, therefore also decreasing the voltage, usually rather slowly at first, then faster. See also, recovery.
A factor, usually 1.4 for, for example, NiCd or NiMH which one multiplies the time with to compensate for losses during charging for example, temperature losses. Example: When one charges a 1 Ah battery with 1A, theoretically it will be fully charged in 1 hour, but with the charge factor included, the time is 1.4 hours. One can see the charge factor as another name for efficiency, no battery or power source will reach 100%, there is always larger or smaller losses in the system. A common way to state this that it produces heat where you do not want it.
Collective term for a series of primary use batteries in which lithium in some form is included. High cell voltage, 3.0-3.6V and high energy density and long shelf life characterize all lithium technologies. Even lithium cells with 1.5V voltage are common today as a qualified alternative to alkaline cells of the consumer type with AAA, AA and 9V size.
A rechargeable system with high energy density. Nominal cell voltage 3.7V and performs for low to medium-high currents, is used more and more in mobile phones, two-way radios and other portable devices. Used also in connection with large-series / parallel-connected batteries in electric vehicles. Lithium-ion Manganese(IV) oxide has the same nominal voltage and can operate at higher currents.
Abbreviation for Nickel-Cadmium. The story goes back to 1899 when the Swede Waldemar Jungner invented the NiFe battery. The electrolyte is alkaline, and today's cells are found in a variety of special versions for high temperatures, fast charging, etc. NiCd batteries have a very low internal resistance.
Are those plates which are spot welded between the cells to connect terminals for series or parallel connections in the manufacturing of a battery pack. Sometimes called the welding plate or solder plate (when referring the soldering of the connection wires on these). Manufactured out of pure nickel for good weldability with the cells. Expressions like nickel straps and tabs are also used both in English and Swenglish.
Temperature-dependent component that is often used in batteries in order to detect the cell temperature. NTC comes from the term Negative Temperature Coefficient. Also known as a thermistor or NTC thermistor, and comes in many different resistance values. The nominal value is normally specified at 20 ° C and when the temperature rises the resistance value reduces according to a specific curve (K value). 10Kohm is a common resistance value in the context of batteries .
Georg Simon Ohm was a German physicist who gave his name to the electrical quantity resistance. Written with the character Ω (Omega), represented by R in formulas. Popularly, "resistance" is often used to describe resistance, even about the component resistor. It is widely used to describe all electronic devices and even sometimes in batteries that, among other things, restrict current. See also NTC and PTC.
A parallel connection is used in batteries to connect multiple cells. The total voltage does not increase however with current capacity, as well as total battery capacity in ampere hours and watt-hours. See also serial connection.
PTC resistors are temperature-dependent components which in special designs can function as a power fuse in eg., battery connection (Polyswitch, Multi-fuse). They reset themselves when they short circuit or when the load is removed. Available in values from the 1A up to around 10A. A standard PTC resistor works in the opposite way from an NTC resistor (Positive Temperature Coefficient), ie., the resistance increases as the temperature increases.
PTC resistors are temperature-dependent components which in special designs can function as a power fuse in eg., battery connection (Polyswitch, Multi-fuse). They reset themselves when they short circuit or when the load is removed. Available in values from the 1A up to around 10A.
A standard PTC resistor works in the opposite way from an NTC resistor (Positive Temperature Coefficient), ie., the resistance increases as the temperature increases.
System Management Bus, is a designation for a type of communication bus (data bus) used between devices in systems with smart batteries. Briefly, a battery with a built-in electronic "power gauge" that shows the capacity content etc. I2C bus and CAN bus are alternatives with a similar communications protocol.
Sealed Lead Acid, exhausted lead acid batteries_ if the electrolyte is immobilized in a porous material it can be mounted in any position, as opposed to open batteries with liquid electrolyte_ A valve exists which is capable of opening in the event of overpressure in the battery, which is therefore also called valve-regulated battery (VRLA)_
The voltage in which case one sees that a particular battery (chemical system) is discharged. As a rule, referred to per cell, one can multiply to get the battery voltage. Examples of different end voltages are 1.75V for lead, 1.0V for NiCd / NiMH and 09V for an alkaline dry battery (primary battery).
Most NiCd and NiMH cells are now designed to be recharged in 1-1.5 hours, even less downtime exists_ With rapid charging one must always monitor and stop charging at the correct time to avoid overcharging, which destroys the cells. Some Lithium-ion technologies can allow such short charging times as 10-15 minutes to achieve minimum 80% charge.
Another name for ordinary alkaline or manganese dioxide battery (primary battery)_ Coming from a time when these went from being an open vessel with liquid electrolyte, which was difficult to handle and to a closed "dry cell"_ The content, however, is after all quite wet while the electrolyte is absorbed in various porous substances or electrodes.
Collective term for different types of fuses that you mount inside some batteries in contact with the cells. The fuse is triggered if the temperature rises too high, to prevent damage to the battery and environment (disaster protection)_ A temperature fuse can not be reset, and is usually not interchangeable, ordinary temperature limits are 75-95⁰ C.
Component that is used in batteries when you want to ensure that the battery circuit breaks if the cells' temperature goes above a certain limit_ Can also be used to control (cancel) the charge_ Common values are 45-70⁰ C, the switch resets itself automatically when the temperature drops, or with an outer button.
Stands for Uninterruptable Power Supply, an appliance or a larger system that includes batteries and charging equipment with monitoring circuits, and usually a voltage converter to supply 230V power to the connected equipment, for example, a computer or emergency alarm system , etc. During a power outage the equipment continues to operate for a certain time. Available in effect from a few hundred watts to several hundred kilowatts.
Refers to the type of positive terminal available on normal consumer cells. The production and construction of the battery pack often uses a different type of cell with smooth plus poles, which is better suited for spot welding of connections between cells. The finished battery also gets a smoother surface which is easier to encapsulate.
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